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运维自动化之Cobbler:Linux系统批量安装

Cobbler简介

Cobbler是一个快速网络安装Linux的服务,在大批量系统安装的环境中及其方便。

 

Cobbler功能

使用 Cobbler,您无需进行人工干预即可安装机器。

Cobbler 支持众多的发行版:Red Hat、Fedora、CentOS、Debian、Ubuntu 和 SuSE。

为了协助管理系统,Cobbler 可通过 fence scripts 连接到各种电源管理环境。

首先也是最重要的,Cobbler需要Python,任何版本大于2.6的;官网说明(http://www.cobblerd.org/manuals/2.6.0/2/1_-_Prerequisites.html

Cobbler也需要安装以下的安装包:

createrepo
httpd (apache2 for Debian/Ubuntu)
mkisofs
mod_wsgi (libapache2-mod-wsgi for Debian/Ubuntu)
mod_ssl (libapache2-mod-ssl)
python-cheetah
python-netaddr
python-simplejson
python-urlgrabber
PyYAML (python-yaml for Debian/Ubuntu)
rsync
xinetd(system default installed )
syslinux
tftp-server (atftpd for Debian/Ubuntu, though others may work)
yum-utils


一、安装和修改Cobbler相关的配置

1.安装Cobbler

cobbler可以手动编译安装,也可以基于yum源的安装, 如果需要通过yum源安装,则需要配置epel源。

epel源可以通过下载官方给的epel源的目录来实现安装!http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL

# rpm -Uvh http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-X-Y.noarch.rpm
# yum install cobbler -y

PS:新版的Fedora安装系统存放在“testing”存储库中一段时间来检查有没有bug,如果你想通过EPEL安装最新版的cobbler(未通过生产环境验证有没有bug),可在安装或升级时启动-testing模式。

$ sudo yum install –enablerepo=epel-testing cobbler
# or
$ sudo yum update –enablerepo=epel-testing cobbler


2.安装DHCP服务

yum install dhcp -y

3.启动各服务并设为开机启动

service httpd start  (cobblerd/xinetd依次启动 )

chkconfig httpd on (dhcpd/xinetd/tftp/cobblerd依次设置

4.修改Cobbler配置:

# vim /etc/cobbler/setting
'next_server: 127.0.0.1' 替换本机IP地址 (DHCP服务地址)
'server: 127.0.0.1' 替换本机IP地址(cobbler服务地址)
'manage_dhcp: 0' 替换为 1(cobbler管理dhcp,后面用于同步更新配置信息[cobbler sync])
'manage_rsync: 0' 替换为 1 (cobbler管理rsync功能)

5.启动tftp和rsync服务

# vim /etc/xinetd.d/tftp

# vim /etc/xinetd.d/rsync

分别将disable项修改成:disable = no

6.修改DHCP模板,确保DHCP分配的地址和Cobbler在同一网段

# vim /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template 

根据实际情况只修改subnet段的内容如下:

subnet 10.1.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
     option routers             10.1.1.1;
     option domain-name-servers 202.106.0.20;
     option subnet-mask         255.255.255.0;
     range dynamic-bootp        10.1.1.100 10.1.1.254;
#     filename                  "/pxelinux.0";
     default-lease-time         21600;
     max-lease-time             43200;
     next-server                10.1.1.10;
     class "pxeclients" {
          match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
          if option pxe-system-type = 00:02 {
                  filename "ia64/elilo.efi";
          } else if option pxe-system-type = 00:06 {
                  filename "grub/grub-x86.efi";
          } else if option pxe-system-type = 00:07 {
                  filename "grub/grub-x86_64.efi";
          } else {
                  filename "pxelinux.0";
          }
     }

}

注意:网上有些资料把上面的改为了如下的格式,我觉得官方的方法更好一些,它有客户端类型应怎么引导的判断!                                                                                       

subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
#修改自己的路由
     option routers             192.168.0.1;
#域名服务器地址
     option domain-name-servers 202.106.0.20;
#子网掩码
     option subnet-mask         255.255.255.0;
#分配IP地址段
     range dynamic-bootp        192.168.0.100 192.168.0.254;
     filename                   “/pxelinux.0”;
     default-lease-time         21600;
     max-lease-time             43200;
     next-server                $next_server;
}

           

7.检查配置

# /etc/init.d/httpd start
# /etc/init.d/cobblerd start  
# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : SELinux is enabled. Please review the following wiki page for details on ensuring cobbler works correctly in your SELinux environment:
    https://github.com/cobbler/cobbler/wiki/Selinux
2 : change 'disable' to 'no' in /etc/xinetd.d/rsync
3 : since iptables may be running, ensure 69, 80/443, and 25151 are unblocked
4 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
5 : ksvalidator was not found, install pykickstart
6 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to 'cobbler' and should be changed, try: "openssl passwd -1 -salt 'random-phrase-here' 'your-password-here'" to generate new one
7 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

然后根据提示,逐一解决上面出现的问题。

1.禁用SELINUX

# vim /etc/sysconfig/selinux 

SELINUX=disabled

重启系统使之生效。

2. 编辑rsync文件

# vim /etc/xinetd.d/rsync

disable = no   //修改此处,将yes改为no

3. 如果开启了防火墙,确保允许69、80/443、25151端口通信

为了方便,这里直接关闭防火墙 

# service iptables stop

4.如果是安装Debian这样的系统,需要安装debmirror (不是的话可以忽略)

5.需要安装pykickstart。   

# yum install debmirror pykickstart -y     //4、5一块处理了。

6.修改cobbler用户的默认密码

# openssl passwd -1 -salt ‘suibianxie’ ‘cobblerpass’

$1$suibianx$z76PIFOEknPi2.WhUujho.

# vim /etc/cobbler/settings

default_password_crypted: $1$suibianx$z76PIFOEknPi2.WhUujho.    //修改此处,将上面生成的加密字符串写到这里。

7.安装cman或fence-agents启动电源管理功能

# yum install cman -y   //这里我用cman

重启服务,在检查一下

# service cobblerd restart
Stopping cobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
Starting cobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : comment out 'dists' on /etc/debmirror.conf for proper debian support
2 : comment out 'arches' on /etc/debmirror.conf for proper debian support

Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.

解决上面的两个提示:

# vim /etc/debmirror.conf     //找到并注释下面两行的内容

#@dists=”sid”;

#@arches=”i386″;

检查,发现没有问题后继续之后的操作!

# cobbler check
No configuration problems found.  All systems go.

# cobbler sync

二、导入ISO系统文件

1.上传镜像到服务器

2.创建镜像挂载目录

3.挂载镜像到创建目录上

4. 从iso中导入客户端要安装的OS。

# cobbler import --path=/media/Centos6.5/ --name=Centos6.5 --arch=x86_64
task started: 2015-04-29_111745_import
task started (id=Media import, time=Wed Apr 29 11:17:45 2015)
Found a candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel6
Found a matching signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel6
Adding distros from path /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64:
creating new distro: Centos6.5-x86_64
trying symlink: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64 -> /var/www/cobbler/links/Centos6.5-x86_64
creating new profile: Centos6.5-x86_64
associating repos
checking for rsync repo(s)
checking for rhn repo(s)
checking for yum repo(s)
starting descent into /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64 for Centos6.5-x86_64
processing repo at : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64
need to process repo/comps: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64
looking for /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64/repodata/*comps*.xml
Keeping repodata as-is :/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/Centos6.5-x86_64/repodata
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

这个过程需要一些时间,可查看/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/下相关目录文件的生成情况!

# cobbler sync
# cobbler list
distros:
   Centos6.5-x86_64

profiles:
   Centos6.5-x86_64

systems:

repos:

images:

mgmtclasses:

packages:

files:


三、Client部署测试

客户机与服务端在同一网段,并设置为PXE启动!启动后就可以看到 Cobbler 引导界面,选择相应的系统条目就可以顺利开始无人工干预安装系统!

完成自动化安装后,使用root用户账号登录,密码为之前在配置文件中写入的值!(本文中为 cobblerpass


问题BUG:

配置检查出错 

# cobbler check

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File “/usr/bin/cobbler”, line 36, in <module>
    sys.exit(app.main())
  File “/usr/lib/python2.6/site-packages/cobbler/cli.py”, line 655, in main
    rc = cli.run(sys.argv)
  File “/usr/lib/python2.6/site-packages/cobbler/cli.py”, line 270, in run
    self.token         = self.remote.login(“”, self.shared_secret)
  File “/usr/lib64/python2.6/xmlrpclib.py”, line 1199, in __call__
    return self.__send(self.__name, args)
  File “/usr/lib64/python2.6/xmlrpclib.py”, line 1489, in __request
    verbose=self.__verbose
  File “/usr/lib64/python2.6/xmlrpclib.py”, line 1253, in request
    return self._parse_response(h.getfile(), sock)
  File “/usr/lib64/python2.6/xmlrpclib.py”, line 1392, in _parse_response
    return u.close()
  File “/usr/lib64/python2.6/xmlrpclib.py”, line 838, in close
    raise Fault(**self._stack[0])
xmlrpclib.Fault: <Fault 1: “<class ‘cobbler.cexceptions.CX’>:’login failed'”>
这是一个GUB,解决方法:

# service cobblerd restart

# cobbler get-loaders

Published inAutomation系统运维

2 Comments

  1. 好高级的东西,表示看不懂。一直用vps都是预装了linux的……

    • 系统安装这东东,相较于前端所能呈现给用户多彩的界面比较,我觉得后者更牛啊!

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